GM TH400 Automatic Transmission
The TH400 is an automatic shift, three-speed, longitudinally positioned transmission. It is regarded to be a supremely durable and legendary.

The transmission is conservatively rated at 450 ft. lbs. of input torque. Aftermarket building techniques take it well past that figure.

History
The Turbo 400 was introduced in 1964 in Buick and Cadillac cars and in Chevrolet and Oldsmobile cars the following year. An innovative variable pitch stator was available in the 1965-1967 cars that could essentially vary the characteristics of the torque converter.

The TH400 made its way into heavier duty GM trucks in the 1970's in 2wd and 4wd configurations. The 400 was not just a GM exclusive transmission. It is an immensely popular transmission in the automotive industry as well as the aftermarket. They are found in GM's, Jeeps, Jaguars, Rolls-Royces, Ferraris and others.

As with other GM transmissions, GM changed the naming scheme of the TH400 in 1990 and it was then referred to as the 3L80 (3-speeds, Longitudinally positioned, 8000 lbs. GVW). An overdrive version of it was introduced as the 4L80-E. This electronically controlled transmission remains in production and wide use in heavy-duty GM and military applications.

Identification
The 400 transmission has a main case of cast aluminum alloy with a length of 24-3/8" long. Its aluminum case is essentially smooth. The rear mounting face of the transmission has a hex bolt pattern with ribs running forward longitudinally. The fluid pan shape is irregular (see image, left), being likened unto a distorted Texas pattern. The TH400 is the largest of the common GM auto transmissions, but still surprisingly compact in light of the immense power they can handle.

There are two significant variations of the TH400. The TH375 was a version of the transmission used from 1972-1976 in smaller displacement cars. It is identified easiest by its "375-THM" designation cast in the underside of the tail housing. The TH475 was an extra-heavy-duty version, and was found in larger trucks from 1971 on.

If you are trying to determine the TH400 from another in a vehicle, a fast way to tell is to look at the kick down mechanism. The TH400 uses an electrical slide switch, which is controlled by the throttle linkage. The TH350 uses a mechanical cable kick-down mechanism that is attached to the throttle linkage.

An interesting variable pitch stator feature of the Turbo 400 was available in 1965-1967 Buick, Olds and Cadillacs. These are identified by the two-prong plug on the case. While 1970-1974 models also had this plug, it is for the transmission controlled spark system.